### Figures

- The three Cartesian axes used in CSS transforms
- Elemental frames of reference
- Rotations in the xy plane
- The spherical coordinate system used in CSS transforms
- Rotations around the three axes
- A transformed div element
- Different transform lists, different results
- Overwriting or modifying transforms
- Translating in two dimensions
- Translating in three dimensions
- Scaled elements
- Rotations around the three axes
- Rotations around 3D vectors
- Rotation around a 3D vector, and how that vector is determined
- The difference between rotating around two axes and rotating around a 3D axis
- Skewing along the x- and y-axes
- Skewed elements
- A matrix-transformed element and its functional equivalent
- A matrix3d-transformed element and its functional equivalent
- Different perspective pyramids
- The effects of varying perspective values
- Various origin calculations
- Rotational effects using various transform origins
- Skew and scale effects using various transform origins
- A square rotated around the SVG origin and its own origin
- A 3D-transformed inner div
- The effects of a flat versus a 3D-preserved transform style
- Shared perspective versus individual perspectives
- A basic “ruler”
- A basic “ruler” with different perspective origins
- Visible and hidden backfaces
- Photo on the front, information on the back